18 Collection Classes

Collections are a key feature of the ROOT system. Many, if not most, of the applications you write will use collections. If you have used parameterized C++ collections or polymorphic collections before, some of this material will be review. However, much of this chapter covers aspects of collections specific to the ROOT system. When you have read this chapter, you will know

18.1 Understanding Collections

A collection is a group of related objects. You will find it easier to manage a large number of items as a collection. For example, a diagram editor might manage a collection of points and lines. A set of widgets for a graphical user interface can be placed in a collection. A geometrical model can be described by collections of shapes, materials and rotation matrices. Collections can themselves be placed in collections. Collections act as flexible alternatives to traditional data structures of computers science such as arrays, lists and trees.

18.1.1 General Characteristics

The ROOT collections are polymorphic containers that hold pointers to TObjects, so:

Collections are dynamic; they can grow in size as required. Collections themselves are descendants of TObject so can themselves be held in collections. It is possible to nest one type of collection inside another to any level to produce structures of arbitrary complexity.

Collections do not own the objects they hold for the very good reason that the same object could be a member of more than one collection. Object ownership is important when it comes to deleting objects; if nobody owns the object it could end up as wasted memory (i.e. a memory leak) when no longer needed. If a collection is deleted, its objects are not. The user can force a collection to delete its objects, but that is the user’s choice.

18.1.2 Determining the Class of Contained Objects

Most containers may hold heterogeneous collections of objects and then it is left to the user to correctly cast the TObject pointer to the right class. Casting to the wrong class will give wrong results and may well crash the program! Therefore, the user has to be very careful. Often a container only contains one class of objects, but if it really contains a mixture, it is possible to ask each object about its class using the InheritsFrom method.

For example if myObject is a TObject pointer:

if (myObject->InheritsFrom("TParticle") {
   printf("myObject is a TParticlen");

As the name suggests, this test works even if the object is a subclass of TParticle. The member function IsA() can be used instead of InheritsFrom to make the test exact. The InheritsFrom and IsA methods use the extensive Run Time Type Information (RTTI) available via the ROOT meta-classes.

18.1.3 Types of Collections

The ROOT system implements the following basic types of collections: unordered collections, ordered collections and sorted collections. Next figure shows the inheritance hierarchy for the primary collection classes. All primary collection classes derive from the abstract base class TCollection.

The inheritance hierarchy of the primary collection classes

The inheritance hierarchy of the primary collection classes

18.1.4 Ordered Collections (Sequences)

Sequences are collections that are externally ordered because they maintain internal elements according to the order in which they were added. The following sequences are available:

The TOrdCollection, TObjArray as well as the TClonesArray can be sorted using their Sort() member function (for this, the stored objects must provide a comparison function by overriding TObject::Compare() and also must enable sorting by overriding TObject::IsSortable() to return true). Ordered collections all derive from the abstract base class TSeqCollection. Sorted collections are ordered by an internal (automatic) sorting mechanism. The following sorted collections are available (the stored items must be sortable):

Unordered collections don’t maintain the order in which the elements were added, i.e. when you iterate over an unordered collection, you are not likely to retrieve elements in the same order they were added to the collection. The following unordered collections are available:

18.2 Iterators: Processing a Collection

The concept of processing all the members of a collection is generic, i.e. independent of any specific representation of a collection. To process each object in a collection one needs some type of cursor that is initialized and then steps over each member of the collection in turn. Collection objects could provide this service but there is a snag: as there is only one collection object per collection there would only be one cursor. Instead, to permit the use of as many cursors as required, they are made separate classes called iterator. For each collection class there is an associated iterator class that knows how to sequentially retrieve each member in turn. The relationship between a collection and its iterator is very close and may require that the iterator has full access to the collection (i.e. it is a friend class). In general iterator will be used via the TIter wrapper class. For example:

18.3 Foundation Classes

All collections are based on the fundamental classes: TCollection and TIterator. They are so generic that it is not possible to create objects from them; they are only used as base classes for other classes (i.e. they are abstract base classes).

The TCollection class provides the basic protocol (i.e. the minimum set of member functions) that all collection classes have to implement. These include:

The code example below shows a class containing three lists, where the fTracks list is the owning collection and the other two lists are used to store a sub-set of the track objects. In the destructor of the class, the method Delete is called for the owning collection to delete correctly its entire track objects. To delete the objects in the container use fTrack->Delete(). To delete the container itself, do ’delete fTracks'.

class TEvent : public TObject {
   TList *fTracks;  //list of all tracks
   TList *fVertex1; //subset of tracks part of vertex1
   TList *fVertex2; //subset of tracks part of vertex2
   delete fTracks;
   delete fVertex1;
   delete fVertex2;

The TIterator class defines the minimum set of member functions that all iterators must support. These include:

18.4 A Collectable Class

By default, all objects of TObject derived classes can be stored in ROOT containers. However, the TObject class provides some member functions that allow you to tune the behavior of objects in containers. For example, by default two objects are considered equal if their pointers point to the same address. This might be too strict for some classes where equality is already achieved if some or all of the data members are equal. By overriding the following TObject member functions, you can change the behavior of objects in collections:

The example below shows how to use and override these member functions.

class TObjNum : public TObject {
   Int_t  num;  // TObjNum is a simple container for an integer.
   TObjNum(Int_t i = 0) : num(i) { }
   ~TObjNum() { }
   void     SetNum(Int_t i) { num = i; }
   Int_t    GetNum() const { return num; }
   void     Print(Option_t *) const
      { printf("num = %dn", num); }
   Bool_t   IsEqual(TObject *obj) const
      { return num == ((TObjNum*)obj)->num; }
   Bool_t   IsSortable() const { return kTRUE; }
   Int_t    Compare(const TObject *obj) const
      { if (num < ((TObjNum*)obj)->num) return -1;
        else if (num > ((TObjNum*)obj)->num) return 1;
        else return 0; }
   ULong_t  Hash() const { return num; }

18.5 The TIter Generic Iterator

As stated above, the TIterator class is abstract; it is not possible to create TIterator objects. However, it should be possible to write generic code to process all members of a collection so there is a need for a generic iterator object. A TIter object acts as generic iterator. It provides the same Next() and Reset() methods as TIterator although it has no idea how to support them! It works as follows:

Therefore, TIter simply acts as a wrapper for an object of a concrete class inheriting from TIterator.

To see this working in practice, consider the TObjArray collection. Its associated iterator is TObjArrayIter. Suppose myarray is a pointer to a TObjArray that contains MyClass objects, i.e.

TObjArray *myarray;

To create a TIter object called myiter:

TIter myiter(myarray);

As shown in the diagram, this results in several methods being called:

Now define a pointer for MyClass objects and set it to each member of the TObjArray:

MyClass *myobject;
while ((myobject = (MyClass *)myiter.Next())) {
      // process myobject

The heart of this is the myiter.Next() expression which does the following:

Sometimes the TIter object is called next, and then instead of writing: next.Next()which is legal, but looks rather odd, iteration is written as next(). This works because the function operator() is defined for the TIter class to be equivalent to the Next() method.

18.6 The TList Collection

A TList is a doubly linked list. Before being inserted into the list the object pointer is wrapped in a TObjLink object that contains, besides the object pointer also a previous and next pointer.

Objects are typically added using:

Main features ofTList: very low cost of adding/removing elements anywhere in the list.

Overhead per element: 1 TObjLink, i.e. two 4 (or 8) byte pointers + pointer to vtable = 12 (or 24) bytes.

Next figure shows the internal data structure of a TList.

The internal data structure of a TList

The internal data structure of a TList

18.6.1 Iterating Over a TList

There are four ways to iterate over a TList:

TIter next(GetListOfTracks());
while ((TTrack *obj = (TTrack *)next()))
TObjLink *lnk = GetListOfPrimitives()->FirstLink();
while (lnk) {
   lnk = lnk->Next();
TFree *idcur = this;
while (idcur) {
   idcur = (TFree*)GetListOfFree()->After(idcur);

Method 1 uses internally method 2.

Method 2 works for all collection classes. TIter overloads operator().

Methods 3 and 4 are specific for TList.

Methods 2, 3 and 4 can also easily iterate backwards using either a backward TIter (using argument kIterBackward) or by using LastLink() and lnk>Prev() or by using the Before() method.

18.7 The TObjArray Collection

A TObjArray is a collection which supports traditional array semantics via the overloading of operator[]. Objects can be directly accessed via an index. The array expands automatically when objects are added. At creation time one specifies the default array size (default = 16) and lower bound (default = 0). Resizing involves a re-allocation and a copy of the old array to the new. This can be costly if done too often. If possible, set initial size close to expected final size. Index validity is always checked (if you are 100% sure and maximum performance is needed you can use UnCheckedAt() instead of At() or operator[]). If the stored objects are sort able the array can be sorted using Sort(). Once sorted, efficient searching is possible via the BinarySearch() method. The figure shows the internal data structure of a TObjArray:

The internal data structure of a TObjArray

The internal data structure of a TObjArray

Iterating can be done using a TIter iterator or via a simple for loop:

for (int i = 0; i <= fArr.GetLast(); i++)
if ((track = (TTrack*)fArr[i]))     // or fArr.At(i)

Main features of TObjArray are simple, well-known array semantics. Overhead per element: none, except possible over sizing of fCont.

18.8 TClonesArray An Array of Identical Objects

A TClonesArray is an array of identical (clone) objects. The memory for the objects stored in the array is allocated only once in the lifetime of the clones array. All objects must be of the same class. For the rest this class has the same properties as a TObjArray.

The internal data structure of a TClonesArray

The internal data structure of a TClonesArray

The figure above shows the internal data structure of a TClonesArray. The class is specially designed for repetitive data analysis tasks, where in a loop many times the same objects, are created and deleted. The only supported way to add objects to a TClonesArray is via the new with placement method. The different Add() methods of TObjArray and its base classes are not supported.

18.8.1 The Idea Behind TClonesArray

To reduce the very large number of new and delete calls in large loops like this (O(100000) x O(10000) times new/delete):

TObjArray a(10000);
while (TEvent *ev = (TEvent *)next()) {        // O(100000)
   for (int i = 0; i < ev->Ntracks; i++) {     // O(10000)
      a[i] = new TTrack(x,y,z,...);

You better use a TClonesArray which reduces the number of new/delete calls to only O(10000):

TClonesArray a("TTrack", 10000);
while (TEvent *ev = (TEvent *)next()) {      // O(100000)
   for (int i = 0; i < ev->Ntracks; i++) {   // O(10000)
      TTrack *track = (Track*)a.ConstructedAt(i);
   a.Clear(); // Or Clear("C") if the track objects must be returned (via Track::Clear) to a default state.

Considering that a pair of new/delete calls on average cost about 70 ms, O(109) new/deletes will save about 19 hours. For the other collections, see the class reference guide on the web and the test program $ROOTSYS/test/tcollex.cxx.

18.9 Template Containers and STL

Some people dislike polymorphic containers because they are not truly “type safe”. In the end, the compiler leaves it the user to ensure that the types are correct. This only leaves the other alternative: creating a new class each time a new (container organization) / (contained object) combination is needed. To say the least this could be very tedious. Most people faced with this choice would, for each type of container:

Define the class leaving a dummy name for the contained object type. When a particular container was needed, copy the code and then do a global search and replace for the contained class. C++ has a built in template scheme that effectively does just this. For example:

template<class T>
class ArrayContainer {
   T *member[10];

This is an array container with a 10-element array of pointers to T, it could hold up to 10 T objects. This array is flawed because it is static and hard-coded, it should be dynamic. However, the important point is that the template statement indicates that T is a template, or parameterized class. If we need an ArrayContainer for Track objects, it can be created by:

ArrayContainer<Track> MyTrackArrayContainer;

C++ takes the parameter list and substitutes Track for T throughout the definition of the class ArrayContainer, then compiles the code so generated, effectively doing the same we could do by hand, but with a lot less effort.

This produces code that is type safe, but does have different drawbacks: